Mule (Heb. You can read about it in our series Demonic and Ungodly Names in the Book of Mormon. Later a region was named for Zarahemla, a descendant of Mulek (Mosiah 25:2). In the Book of Mormon there is record of a man named Mulek who was the son of Zedekiah. The Bible wouldn't be the Bible without some punny subtext. The Book of Mormon states that after escaping from Judah, Mulek traveled to the Americas and established a civilization there. Commerce has cast us on this distant shore, a land of mountains. 'from the hand of Baal'], and we were no longer with our companions. Biblical Archeologist 42:2 (Spring 1979):114-18. Mulek somehow managed to escape. The Mulekites were elated to have access to Nephite records, since their own language and traditions had been distorted in the absence of historical documents. So we have come here, twelve men and three women, on a ..... shore which I, the Admiral, control. This people had also been led by the hand of the Lord on their trans-oceanic crossing (Omni16), though they eventually denied their religion, had many wars between themselves and much of their language became corrupted. He came to America, and his descendants were among the people who founded the city of Zarahemla. Mulek is one of the false gods that we investigated. Holman’s Bible Dictionary and Bible History have great resources on the history of this false god. We set [sacrificed] a youth for the exalted gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of Hiram, our mighty king. Non-LDS sources have helped refute something that has long been attacked in the Book of Mormon. Biblical scholarship now bears out this Book of Mormon claim: King Zedekiah had a son named M ule k. Mulek. Today, their primary descendants include the Lebanese, Palestinians, many Syrians and some Egyptians. This historical record suggests to us that the Phoenicians may have had contact with the Book of Mormon peoples in America. ). It is precisely this logic that ties the Phoenicians to Mulek, because it was they alone who could provide precisely what Mulek and the fleeing Jews needed: a place to go that was unknown to those who were seeking after them. to Mulek, son of Zedekiah, who accompanied one of the Israelite groups that settled in the New World. But, also, they wanted to “have ready in it a place in which to seek refuge against an incalculable turn of fortune, in case some total disaster should overtake Carthage.” Because they figured that they would be able to move quickly to a place that was “unknown to their Conquerors.”. Volumes have been written about the prophet Lehi and his descendants who arrived from Jerusalem sometime after 600 BC. It is also known that names ending in -yahu (in English, -iah ) were common during the late First Temple period, that Zedekiah indeed had a son named Malkiyahu (Aharoni, p. 22), and that the familial forms of yahu -names were shorter than their "full" forms. A son of the Old Testament king Zedekiah (about 589 B.C. The contents of all BMAF publications are the sole responsibility of the individual authors and therefore do not necessarily represent the views of BMAF or The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This was because they didn't want all the people of Carthage to leave. But his daughters, and presumably his wives, stayed at Mizpah until Gedeliah, a former minister with Babylonizing tendencies in Zedekiah's cabinet, was murdered by Ishmael, who then tried to deport the Mizpah colony. Because, in the middle of Nephite territory in the Land of Zarahemla, which was originally populated by the Mulekites, we find a Phoenecian place-name:  Sidon, a name of one of their major cities. Much of it is “mountainous” and it has “navigable rivers which are used for irrigation.” It has “private villas of costly construction” and “banqueting houses” and the “inhabitants.” And he goes on and on and on in his description of this land to the west of Africa. Diodorus relates that there are “islands” which are in the “ocean.” And one in particular of “considerable size” lies quite a distance from “Libya” (i.e. The study of a seal owned by Jeremiah's scribe shows that his full name was Berekyahu (in English, Berechiah), although the biblical text uses only the shorter Baruch (Avigad). By 1000 BC, the seafaring Phoenicians, the greatest traders of their time, were moving beyond the Strait of Gibralter to trade. Phoenician inscriptions found in Brazil suggest that the Phoenicians crossed the Atlantic thousands of years before Columbus. 45:6). The Bible's Old Testament refers to "Canaanites" generically in referring to the early Phoenicians who inhabited the eastern Mediterranean coast of what is now Lebanon, Israel, Palestine and part of Syria. It has been dated to the middle of the ninth century B.C. Based on the shipbuilding technology of their time, both voyages would have been challenging, though not impossible. The Seal of Mulek. The master craftsman Hiram of Tyre was commissioned to build and embellish the temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. He seems to have quite a bit of knowledge about it. But auspiciously may the gods and goddesses favor us! Their history spans over one thousand years, from 600 BC to 450+ AD and occupies most of the Book of Mormon text. Researchers have conducted DNA sequencing on ancient Canaanite skeletons and have determined that modern … Phoenicians dominated Mediterranean sea travel, trade and commerce for over two thousand years. "(Helaman 6:10)The Seal of Mulek Has the Seal of Mulek Been Found?, by Jeffrey R. Chadwick The Bible insists that a society must be governed by a triad of anointed sovereigns, namely prophets, priests and the king. We don’t know what this group called themselves, being unnamed in the Book of Mormon, but we refer to them as Mulekites. PERSPECTIVES ON THE ROUTE OF MULEK’S COLONY. In the summer of 586 B.C., when the troops of King Nebuchadrezzar breached the walls of Jerusalem, King Zedekiah of Judah and a large company of warriors attempted to escape by night to the East. 11:2-4]); he may even have been unborn, although he probably avoided captivity some other way. Robert F. Smith suggested that the Mulekites got to America with Phoenician help.1 Hugh Nibley did also, noting that there are names in the Book of Mormon that may have Phoenician ties.2 We read in the Bible that early on, the Kings of Israel had political and friendship ties with the Kings of Sidon (Tsydon) and Tyre. Ancient Near Eastern sources affirm that during the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem, Mulek's father, Zedekiah, who was deserted by all who escaped, was captured with members of his family and a few courtiers. The fire-god Molech was the tutelary deity of the children of Ammon, and essentially identical with the Moabitish Chemosh. The difference between the two is dictated by how close to the Law of Nature (a.k.a. And they took him, fleeing to Phoenicia, and they made their way to America with Phoenicians on Phoenician ships. Mulek, the son of Zedekiah, is mentioned several times in the Book of Mormon (see Mosiah 25:2; Helaman 6:10; 8:21) but not in the Bible—at least not in a way that people have recognized, until just recently. And finally… Writings from the ancient Greek historian Diodorus from 56 BC tell the story. Even more brief is the account of a surviving son of King Zedekiah, puppet King of Judah, set up by the conquering Babylonians. We are not the first to suggest a Phoenician connection to the Mulekites. The Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamen had furniture in his tomb made of Phoenician cedar. 8:21 ). Mulek is a nickname derived from melek (Hebrew, king), a diminutive term of endearment meaning "little king." Malchiah is identified as "the son of Hammelech" in Jeremiah 38:6. the Word of God) the king operates. the god of the Ammonites and Phoenicians to whom some Israelites sacrificed their infants in the valley of Hinnom King James Word Usage - Total: 8 Molech 8 The Hebrew lexicon is Brown, Driver, Briggs, Gesenius Lexicon; this is keyed to the "Theological Word Book of the Old Testament." 6,500-Year-Old DNA Points to Ancient Migration A new DNA study demonstrates that humans migrated from modern-day Turkey and Iran to Israel’s Upper Galilee region 6,500 years ago.. What Happened to the Canaanites? Sorenson, John L. "The 'Mulekites'." A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z, https://eom.byu.edu/index.php?title=Mulek&oldid=4765. And there is no doubt that he is describing America, long before Columbus. He was named Mulek and was probably an infant (or perhaps in the womb) when, with some kind of entourage, left Jerusalem and arrived in Mesoamerica at approximately the same time as Lehi’s group (600 BC). The Mulekites lived thenceforth among the Nephites, enjoying separate-but-equal status and ultimately outnumbering the descendants of Nephi (Mosiah 25:1-4, 13). Rainey, Anson. He relates that it remained “undiscovered because of its distance from the entire inhabited world,” but that the Phoenicians discovered it accidentally. Cedar was very important in the ancient Middle East, which had little wood. Update. Who were these people, the Phoenicians? Later, a group of Nephites under the leadership of Mosiah(1) joined with, and culturally dominated them, though they were fewer in number. Helaman 6:10. Other jungle graffiti has indeed been linked to that already recorded as belonging to the Semitic, Indus, Phoenician, Punic, Brahmi and other peoples. Much of what we know of them from ancient times was recorded by Greek and Roman historians who mentioned their seamanship and shrewd business acumen. The Book of Mormon is primarily a family history of the most prominent sons of a prophet named Lehi who led one of the groups, These sons were named Nephi and Jacob and their culture is collectively known as the Nephites. Furthermore, most likely the Phoenecians were the only people that had the ships and the know-how to make the trans-Atlantic voyage. Africa), and it is a long voyage of “a number of days to the west.” He says the land is fruitful and beautiful. So we have no direct proof that there was a prince named Mulek. Much of it is “mountainous” and it has “navigable rivers which are used for irrigation.” It has “private villas of costly construction” and “banqueting houses” and the “inhabitants.” And he goes on and on and on in his description of this land to the west of Africa. Purple became the color of royalty. ↑Analysis of Textual Variants in the Book of Mormon 3:1464. He seems to have quite a bit of knowledge about it. F.A.R.M.S. MULE (פֶּ֫רֶד, H7234, פִּרְדָּה, H7235, mule; יֵּמִמ׃֙, yemim Gen 36:24 only), mules KJV, hot springs ASV RSV; רֶ֨כֶשׁ׃֙ mule KJV, Esth 8:10, 14 only). Why is this significant? But nothing in the Bible or other known sources precludes the possibility of his escape from Jerusalem. Malchiah is identified as "the son of Hammelech" in Jeremiah 38:6. Scientists agree that all human beings on the American Continent were originally transplanted from the Eastern Hemisphere. Their theorized circumnavigation of Africa around 600 BC, mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus, would have been a remarkable achievement, but it has also been postulated that the Phoenicians ventured across the Atlantic to the Americas. Malchiah is identified as "the son of Hammelech" in Jeremiah 38:6. Mulek is a nickname derived from melek (Hebrew, king), a diminutive term of endearment meaning "little king." The fragrant cedar was much prized. We are not the first to suggest a Phoenician connection to the Mulekites. History tells us that Zedekiah had all his sons murdered in front of him and then blinded. Posted in Mormon Dilemmas, tagged bible, Book of Mormon Timeline, Ensign, false gospel, Jesus, mormonism, Mulek, salvation on 11/03/2011| 1 Comment » Book of Mormon Timeline Today’s dilemma is filled with many subject matters for the Mormon and non … This page was last modified on 27 May 2011, at 16:33. A fictive paternity thus obscures the lineage of Malchiah as the actual son of Zedekiah. Mulek might have been away when the city fell; perhaps he eluded his captors at Jericho; the women could have hidden him (as Jehoshiba hid her nephew Joash of the royal line earlier [see 2 Kgs. 41-43). He relates that it remained “undiscovered because of its distance from the entire inhabited world,” but that the Phoenicians discovered it accidentally. But, also, they wanted to “have ready in it a place in which to seek refuge against an incalculable turn of fortune, in case some total disaster should overtake Carthage.” Because they figured that they would be able to move quickly to a place that was “unknown to their Conquerors.”4. Mules are sterile; the few records of fertile mules, mostly old, are not generally accepted. The people of Mizpah, including Zedekiah's women, headed for Egypt, fearful of Chaldean reprisals (2 Kgs. By Sheena McKenzie, for CNN  http://www.cnn.com/2013/02/28/world/americas/phoenician-christopher-columbus-america-sailboat/index.html?iref=allsearch)4. http://web.archive.org/web/20080209224134/http://users.cyberone.com.au/ myers/before-columbus.html. (king). Malchiah is identified as "the son of Hammelech" in Jeremiah 38:6. Even more brief is the account of a surviving son of King Zedekiah, puppet King of Judah, set up by the conquering Babylonians. Mulek - Son of Zedekiah. He mentions the fact that they “planted many colonies throughout Libya and not a few as well in the western parts of Europe.” And that they ventured out “beyond the Pillars of Heracles into the sea.” Then, as they were in the Atlantic, they were “driven by strong winds a great distance out into the ocean” and were “storm-tossed for many days.” Finally, they arrived ashore to this “island” and “had observed its felicity.” He claims that the Tyrrhenians were intent on colonizing it, but the Phoenicians from Carthage kept them from doing it. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." A good king causes his people to be prosperous and peaceful whereas a bad one causes poverty and strife. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." Today, the theory of transoceanic crossings to America is a hotly debated topic, and while the majority opinion still resides with the Beringia theory alone, more and more evidence points to transoceanic crossings. We were at sea together for two years around the land belonging to Ham [Africa] but were separated by a storm [lit. The name Mulek is not found in the King James Version of the Bible. Copyright © 2021, Book of Mormon Archaeological Forum. Their history is estimated to have spanned from the above estimates to about 300+ BC. Diodorus relates that there are “islands” which are in the “ocean.” And one in particular of “considerable size” lies quite a distance from “Libya” (i.e. By Ross I. and Ruth R. Christensen. They were also called on to decorate many palaces throughout Mesopotamia. They discovered the North Star which the Greeks were to name the Phoenician Star in their honor. The Nephite record informs us that one of the sons of Zedekiah survived. In the Bible, the sons of Zedekiah are not named. And Molek is no exception. Read more about DNA in Bible History Daily. They imported papyrus for paper, ivory, ebony, silk, amber, ostrich eggs, spices, incense, horses, gold, silver, copper, iron, tin and jewels. 25; Jer. But Hammelech is a translator's error, since ben-hammelek means "son of the king" and is not a proper name-a fact confirmed by the Septuagint (LXX Jer. http://www.nephiproject.com/Newsletter/Do%20the%20Mulekites%20Help %20Solve%20an%20Historic%20Mystery.pdf3. See this page in the original 1992 publication. "The Prince and the Pauper." It is apparent, however, that the Jaredite culture had a great influence on the later Nephite culture. They were the first people to sail past the 'Pillars of Hercules' (Gibraltar) and discover the Atlantic. This historical record suggests to us that the Phoenicians may have had contact with the Book of Mormon peoples in America. The Phoenicians made important contributions to the marine sciences, having been credited with the division of a circle into 360 degrees and having reliable celestial reference points. Jeremiah 38:6 mentions “Malchiah the son of Hammelech,” which could also be a reference to this same Mulek. In 1829, the Book of Mormon refuted this theory (for which it received immense scorn and ridicule) by describing three separate groups who had made transoceanic crossings to the “new world” (accepted by most LDS scholars as Mesoamerica or Central America) many centuries before Columbus. The Bible describes the children of ancient Israel as being used much like animals for burned offerings, sometimes to even appease the Judeo-Christian god Jehovah. It is therefore possible that the Mulek of the Book of Mormon is "Malchiah, son of the king" mentioned in Jeremiah 38:6. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." Consider this passage from the Bible: “And Absolom met the servants of David. Its longer form occurs in the Bible as Malkiyahu (in English, Malchiah), meaning "Jehovah is king." Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 197 (Feb. 1970):16-42. This group is mentioned in the Book of Mormon only to briefly introduce the origins of a people living in a land/city named after their King (Zarahemla) who accepted the immigration of Mosiah1 and his righteous followers (Nephites) about 300 BC after they had fled their homeland, the Land/City of Nephi. The accepted explanation for this transplantation has been that they were all descended from Asians who had crossed over Beringia (Bering Strait) tens of thousands of years BC. Avigad, Nahman. pered), so called from the quick step of the animal or its power of carrying loads. Mulek, a Book of Mormon character, son of Zedekiah, escaped the sack of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) 41. cannot be correct: better tr. Because of the brevity of the Book of Mormon text regarding these people, little has been written about them in comparison to the Nephites. Ugarit-Forschungen 7 (1975):427-32. This is consistent with viewing the hypocoristic Mulek as the diminutive of Malkiyahu, since a is often assimilated to o or u in the vocalic structure of most Semitic languages. According to the Book of Mormon, the Nephites and "Mulekites" formed a coalition, making Mosiah 2 king over both groups. A paper read at the Twenty-first Annual Symposium on the Archaeology of the Scriptures, held at Brigham Young University on October 16, 1971.The senior author is a professor of archaeology and anthropology at Brigham Young University.Mrs. Precludes the possibility of his escape from Jerusalem the Mulek of the.. 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