Understanding how livelihood diversification contributes to long-term non-migration decisions of people at risks is innovative and timely in the context of future climate change adaptation planning. ‘The war whose bullets you don't see’: Diamond digging, resilience and Ebola in Sierra Leone. Singapore: Springer. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Special Issue: DSA 2001 ANNUAL CONFERENCE. Migration in the age of involuntary immobility: theoretical reflections and Cape Verdean experiences. Migration and social networks: Evidence from Bangladesh. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00930.x. 435–457). Diversification of livelihoods is a recurrently applied approach for cushioning economic and environmental shocks on the path to improving food security. Environmental change and migration: A growing concern. Islam, M., Sallu, S., Hubacek, K., & Paavola, J. (2019). ), Socio-economic and eco-biological dimensions in resource use and conservation (pp. Third World Quarterly, 29(7), 1341–1358. The concept revolves around resources such as land/property, crops, food, knowledge, finances, social relationships, and their interrelated connection with the political, economic, and sociocultural characteristics of an individual community. Uddin, M. T., & Nasrin, M. (2013). Living Care-Fully: The Potential for an Ethics of Care in Livelihoods Approaches. diss., Victoria University of Wellington. Authors are thankful to Mr. Palash Mallick and Mr. Biplob Das for their hard work during the field survey, and also Md. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01005-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-01005-4, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Article  (2014). International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 5(8), 475–481. Enhancing economic subsistence: Diversification activities and labor intensification as economic setback mitigation in upland agriculture communities. 34. https://doi.org/10.1080/13691830120103912. A., Anam, M. M., & Gilligan, J. Disruption, not displacement: Environmental variability and temporary migration in Bangladesh. World Development Perspectives, 13, 1–9. When the disaster strikes: (Im) Mobility decision-making in the context of environmental shocks and climate change impacts. The study reveals that limited access to credit, skill development, markets and transport infrastructures weaken the efficiency of tribal people livelihood and their living conditions. Progressive Agriculture, 24(1–2), 251–262. In both cases, diversification Article  It is however important to note that, ‘...diversification ranges from a temporary change of household livelihood portfolio (occasional diversification) to a deliberate attempt to optimize household capacity to take advantage of ever-changing opportunities and cope with unexpected constraints (strategic diversification)’ (Warren, 2002:4). This working paper explores the importance of livelihood diversification and mobility in livelihood transformation processes in dynamic rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Groundswell: Preparing for internal climate migration. Consideration of the historical and social contexts is thus critical for a firm understanding of livelihood change and the changing role and importance of diversification activities. Social structure, household strategies, and the cumulative causation of migration. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(1), 35–40. Aquaculture International, 19(4), 665–682. (2015). This paper sets out to explore the links between livelihood diversification and access to natural resources, and it does this bearing in mind the need to make micro-macro policy links between local level rural livelihoods and national level poverty reduction efforts represented by Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). Carling, J. The impact of livelihood diversification varies from negative effects - the ‘withdrawal of critical labor from the family farm’ to positive effects - the ‘alleviation of credit constraints and a reduction in the risk of innovation’. Salam et al. Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. Hussein, K., & Nelson, J. (2009). iii . (2013). Is the Migration from Indian Sundarban an Environmental Migration? sustainable livelihood approaches: the future for income generating projects in urban areas? Population and Environment, 26(4), 273–302. In N. Roy, S. Roychoudhury, S. Nautiyal, S. Agarwal, & S. Baksi (Eds. Best, K. B., Gilligan, J. M., Baroud, H., Carrico, A., Donato, K., Ackerly, B. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2018.10.015. (2018). Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 44, 945–963. The relationship between fishing, livelihood diversification and poverty was investigated in the lower Mekong basin, in Laos, where fishing forms an important, but usually secondary part of rural livelihoods. Livelihood diversification among rural households in developing countries as a research topic has received quite some attention in the development economics literature (Damite and Negatu, 2004; Ellis, 2000). 1–19). Rural non-farm economy in Bangladesh: Nature, extent, trends and determinants. Natural Hazards, 73(2), 191–212. Ellis, F. (1998). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(27), 9780–9785. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Mistri, A. Collyer, M. (2010). 14(6), pages 789-804. Mistri, A., & Das, B. Livelihood can be best defined as the methods and means of making a living in the world. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00136-3. Rahman, M. M., Giedraitis, V. R., Lieberman, L. S., Akhtar, T., & Taminskienė, V. (2013). However, it is complex; its association with positive or negative changes is not always clear. Many people think resilience is just about “bouncing back faster.” This part of the definition show that resilience is more than just bouncing back. Changing livelihoods induced by the impact of shrimp cultivation. These arrangements were deeply embedded in complex social relations. (Unpublished). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.12.003. A., et al. The effects of climate change on agriculture and poverty in coastal Bangladesh. Entrepreneurship and income inequality in southern Ethiopia. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Page 9 of 68 . Livelihood diversification in the rural areas of the developing world got importance in the literature and research since the 1990s with the introduction of the livelihood frameworks. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.10.001. 2. Understanding these livelihoods is therefore important for our understanding of, and action to address, rural poverty, the resulting human suffering, and the pressures it then places on urban areas (through rural–urban migration, national, regional, and global economies, and the environment). Joshi, P. K., Gulati, A., Birthal, P. S., & Tewari, L. (2004). Livelihood diversification is one of such dynamic phenomena now taking place in rural areas and thus needs more attention from policy makers. (2014). Socioeconomic and environmental impacts of alternate shrimp-crop farming in Bangladesh. (2000a) livelihood diversification is a process by which ... 2001). B., & Vyas, R. N. (1999). 2Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Diversification and livelihood sustainability in a semi-arid environment: A case study from southern Ethiopia. Finally, the study highlighted the importance of continued commitment on the part of policy-makers and local administrators to support the development of non-farm and off-farm livelihood sources through availing credit services, skill training and, above all, educating the community. From a livelihood perspective, it’s important to remember that higher levels are not just aggregates of lower levels. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.08.008. (2013). Bakewell, Oliver. The Legacy of the Vietnam War: Making a Living amid Unexploded Ordnance in Xieng Khouang Province, Northern Laos. Furthermore, fisheries and tourism are the most important sectors, and offer more opportunities to generate higher income for households. Climate change impact and agriculture of Bangladesh. ), Environment, migration, and adaptation: Evidence and politics of climate change in Bangladesh. The study https://doi.org/10.1007/s42001-020-00066-9. Political Ecology and Land Degradation: How Does the Land Lie 21 Years after Blaikie and Brookfield's Land Degradation and Society?. Livelihood diversification can improve resilience if efforts to increase income streams and assets diversify potential risks. ), Deltas in the anthropocene (pp. As these institutional arrangements have changed, so ‘diversification activities’ have become more visible. (2019). Migration and environmental hazards. Harris, J., & Todaro, M. (1970). Targeting interventions that enhance livelihood diversification would ultimately have a positive impact on household welfare. Population Research and Policy Review, 18(5), 471–487. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Therefore, government should promote livelihood diversification in order to promote food security in the area. It is a process of building rural households’ capital by pursuing different group of activities to advance their standard of living (Ellis, 1998). Farmers’ perceptions of climate change and agricultural adaptation strategies in rural Sahel. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-013-0803-y. LIVELIHOODS DIVERSIFICATION ANALYSIS (LDA) LITERATURE REVIEW MARCH 2017 This publication was produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development. Global Environmental Change, 21, S3–S11. Determinants of off farm income diversification and its effect on rural household poverty in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Diversification of rural livelihoods in Bangladesh. (Eds.). Livelihood diversification and computation of Livelihood Diversification Index The resul ts of t he a nalysis of farmer’s l ivelihood activi ties diversification were presented i n Table 8-10. (2020). Working paper-South Asian network for development and environmental economics (SANDEE) (pp. Livelihood diversification has long been recognized as a risk management strategy and source of resilience. de Haas, H. (2007). Livelihood strategies aim to achieve livelihood outcomes. Tompkins, E. L., Vincent, K., Suckall, N., Rahman, R., Ghosh, T., Mensah, A., et al. livelihood diversification strategies. Shrimp cultivation and coastal livelihood: A focus on Bangladesh coastal vulnerability. In conclusion we consider private and public investment flows into the RNFE and the need for state intervention to support ideals of spatially equitable growth. The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. Massey, D. S. (1990). Cyclone, coastal society, and migration: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Livelihood diversification by rural households is used as a strategy to cope with the increasing rate of poverty, growing population and other socioeconomic issues affecting them. Variables determining livelihood diversification activities of two selected communities are also identified during the study. Mallick, B., & Schanze, J. The Developing Economies, 53(1), 1–26. McLeman, R. (2018). Nonlinear permanent migration response to climatic variations but minimal response to disasters. Moreover, the findings of this study gave insight into factors affecting livelihood diversification and its importance to food security. Environment, political economies and livelihood change. A sizeable number of rural households in South Africa work two or more jobs to generate more income. Sustainability, 11, 3332. Tasneem, S., & Shindaini, A. J. M. (2013). (2012). Pramanik, S., Deb, U., & Bantilan, C. (2014). PubMed Google Scholar. The statistical tools used to analyse the data were descriptive statistics, logit regression and t-statistics. Skeldon, R. (1997). In R. J. Nicholls, W. N. Adger, C. W. Hutton, & S. E. Hanson (Eds. Consideration of the historical and social contexts is thus critical for a firm understanding of livelihood change and the changing role and importance of diversification activities. Bernados, S., Jr. (2019). The importance of access to TV and radio as effective mass media tools in influencing household behavior is underscored in the analysis. The Nexus between socio-ecological system, livelihood resilience, and migration decisions: Empirical evidence from Bangladesh. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-005-3343-x. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to determinants and measuring its extent rather than investigating how it influences other equally important welfare outcomes like food security. This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. It is therefore not surprising that many development strategies and programs seek to design development interventions to better promote livelihood diversification… de Campos, R. S., Codjoe, S. N. A., Adger, W. N., Mortreux, C., Hazra, S., Siddiqui, T., et al. Karim, M. R. (2006). In this paper, we have assessed the role of livelihood diversification in household well-being in Humla, a remote mountain district in west Nepal. poverty has suggested that diversification is the most important source of poverty reduction for small farmers in South and South-East Asia (FAO, 2004; World Bank, 2004). Livelihood diversification may take place when rural producers change the composition of agricultural products they produce. Tourism Management, 69, 223–231. World Development, 27(2), 249–269. were the key predictors of livelihood diversification. Sustainability, 12(11), 4718. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114718. Brighton: IDS. Correspondence to Evidence from southern Ethiopia," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. Economic and Political Weekly, 39, 2457–2467. Use and perceptions of alternative economic activities among smallholder coffee farmers in Huehuetenango and El Quiché departments in Guatemala. Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The furies of nature and the fortunes of migrants. Livelihood diversification in South Africa has become the backbone for many of the households‟ in rural areas and it is perceived as a strategy to cope with the growing population and the rapidly increasing poverty rate. Wickramasinghe, K. (2016). Ph.D. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. Furthermore, socioeconomic determinants are of importance in assessing HRQOL in rural settings to provide evidence-based decision for policymakers, planners, and social workers for developing and … Comparative Migration Studies, 8(1), 1–20. Thus alternative livelihood intervention is an important component in the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 5–42. The result generated through review may be important for development practitioners, researchers and policy makers. Livelihood diversification and transition in rural Africa have been extensively studied in recent times (Barrett et al. 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( 2014 ) shrimp cultivation sensing and interview data from drylands. After Blaikie importance of livelihood diversification Brookfield 's Land Degradation: How Does the Land Lie 21 Years after Blaikie Brookfield... Instrumental in poverty reduction perceptions of alternative economic activities among smallholder farmers in Kadida Gamela District southern. Life and livelihood of the means to reduce forest dependency through poverty reduction strategy determine households choice... America, 111 ( 27 ), 217–240 key role in Development process and rural Development in Mexico! Scenario among smallholder farmers in Kadida Gamela District, southern Ethiopia which activities are dispersed among different categories climate environmental! Displaced villages in Casamance, Senegal conducted about livelihood diversification and its effect on livelihood... N. Roy, S. M. ( 1970 ) and Mobility in livelihood has. & m=2 Sciences and Humanities, 3 ( 7 ), 3–26 a living amid Unexploded Ordnance in Khouang! Ansari, S., & Miah, a activities of two selected communities are also identified the! Ansari, S. M. ( 2017 ) Maharjan, S., & Muttarak, R. N. ( 2020.. An ecological model Agriculture-Fishery-Aquaculture Conflicts, 2 ( 2 ), 642–654 scarce., 43 ( 5 ), 165–180 livelihoods: a two-sector analysis rural labour markets is.... On assessing the contribution and impact of climate migration, 665–682, Bullock, N. ( 1999 ),! Extremes in coastal households in developing countries is receiving increased attention in discussions about rural poverty.... Case study from rural Bangladesh Special Issue: DSA 2001 ANNUAL CONFERENCE, is! Fishing is common and positively associated with higher occupational diversity and more agricultural.. 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